Polymer-related chemicals

Application examples of Azo initiators

Azo polymerization initiators are used as catalysts and foaming agents in organic processes, in addition to in polymer synthesis.

Azo initiator decomposition reaction (radical generation)

Polymer Synthesis

Radical polymerization of styrene

Radical polymerization of styrene Propagation reaction

Radical polymerization of acrylic ester

Radical polymerization of acrylic acid ester Propagation reaction

Copolymerization of styrene and acrylic ester

Propagation Reaction of Radical Copolymerization Using Styrene and Acrylate

Catalyst for Organic Synthesis

Addition reaction to olefins

Azo polymerization initiators can be used for addition reactions of HBr, H2S, etc. to olefins. Especially, when using styrenes, bromine or mercapto groups may be selectively introduced to the β position. 

Radical Addition of Hydrogen Bromide to Olefins Using Azo Initiators

Mitsunobu reaction※1

Azo compounds※2 can be used as reagents for the Mitsunobu reaction. 

Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction Using Azo Initiator (Mitsunobu Reaction)
※1 Mitsunobu reaction: SN2 (reaction) that activates hydroxyl group of alcohol with azo carboxylic acid ester and triphenylphosphine.
※2 Azo compounds: Bis (2-methoxyethl) azodicarboxylate, etc.

Foaming Agent

Azo polymerization initiators are used as foaming agents for vinyl chloride (PVC) or other plastics, taking advantage of the property of generating nitrogen gas.

Here, you can calculate the ‘residue rate’, ‘decomposition reaction time’, and ‘temperature during the decomposition reaction’ of azo polymerization initiators.

Image of Azo Residue Rate Calculation Tool